In reaction and distillation equipment, reaction vessels are Spherical or cylindrical made of glass or Jacketed vessels of stainless steel or enamelled steel. However regardless of the construction of the reaction vessels it is possible to observe the course of the process visually at any time as a result of the top covers made of glass. The vapour tube, condenser, receiving vessels etc are also made of Glass components. There are large number of variation possibilities with reference to the type of vessel and their heating, the stirrer devices and the design of the attachment ensures an exact match to the particular application. All the required arrangements are made available for applications such as reflux boiling, distillation, rectification and reaction at normal pressure and under vacuum. Top covers with a practical arrangement and sizes of connecting pieces are available in all nominal diameters for making the various connections such as, for example, pressure and temperature measurements, gas and liquid inlets, vapour tube, stirring devices etc. In the case of spherical glass vessels there is also the option of fitting inclined connecting pieces directly to the vessel. The combination of the steel-enamelled vessel with the Glass top cover so that it is not only especially economic but also makes it possible to monitor the process visually without difficulty. The stirring devices can be fitted with the following types of stirrers:-
1. Borosilicate glass paddle, anchor-screw or suction stirrer.
2. Steel/PTFE turbine stirrers for larger vessels and in the case of rather high loads.
The PTFE turbine stirrers are employed specially for media of rather high viscosity. In this case the drives and the type of bearing must also be suitably chosen. Depending on the length of the stirrer single or double bearing are used. Sealing is achieved by single-or double-action mechanical seals using a ceramic/PTFE or ceramic/ carbon material combination.
The design of the attachments varies with their purpose. The wide scope of the components range makes individual matching to each particular application possible.
Reaction takes place in reactor suitable for dissolution and crystallization processes for reflux boiling and for reactions involving refrigeration or heating. The advantage of this reactor is its glass construction. This means smooth, pore-free internal surfaces without trouble-some internal fittings in the reaction chamber.
To enable dissolution and reaction operations to be carried out before the distillation and to prevent boiling delays during the distillation, this equipment can be optionally fitted with an anchor-screw, suction or paddle stirrer.
In its simplest construction Reactor is having feed arrangement from the top, having agitator arrangement. The jacketed vessel is provided for heating or cooling. The condenser is provided with reflux divider to collect the distillate.